Updated 04-09-2023

English Toy Spaniel

The English Toy Spaniel, sometimes known as a Charlie after the king who adored them, is a shy and retiring dog breed with a mischievous streak. They are not the type of dog that greets strangers with "hello fellow, well greeted," and they are more comfortable with just one person.

In general, English Toy Spaniels are calm and friendly pets. They don't require strenuous exercise just a daily stroll would do and they prefer to spend most of their time indoors, in part because they can't stand being outside when the weather is really bad. There's a good chance that kids will get this chill dog worked up too much to enjoy himself. This breed would do well in an apartment with a patient owner, and they would repay that kindness with a plethora of love.

English Toy Spaniel characteristics and background information are detailed below!


  • This breed benefits greatly from early and extensive socialization because it tends to be cautious around strangers and unfamiliar surroundings.
  • The English Toy Spaniel is an average shedder; brushing once a week will remove dead hair and prevent mats.
  • The English Toy Spaniel needs a fully enclosed yard and should be walked on a leash at all times for its own protection.
  • Dogs of the English Toy Spaniel breed are suitable for city living.
  • This English Toy Is An Absolute Classic On hot days, it is important to keep an eye on your spaniel to make sure it doesn't overheat and exhaust itself. Dogs should be kept in a cool, climate-controlled environment.
  • This English Toy Is An Absolute Classic Spaniels are low-key pets that don't need frequent walks and runs. They are content to spend the day perched on your knee, and a stroll around the block will suffice for their daily dose of exercise. They are wonderful pets for people of retirement age.
  • This English Toy is an Absolute Classic although spaniels are generally good with kids, that doesn't mean they'd thrive in a household with lots of active kids.
  • This English Toy is an Absolute classic. Spaniels are best as companion animals, and they do best when they are with the people they care about. Not allowing them to be confined to an outdoor area or kennel away from their loved ones is unacceptable.
  • English Toy Spaniels frequently suffer from separation anxiety, and as a result, they can be destructive if left alone for too long.
  • • If you want a healthy dog, you should never buy one from a pet store, puppy mill, or backyard breeder.


Social Appearance 


It's a common misconception that a little dog is better suited to living in a limited space. Many tiny dogs have too much energy and are too yappy to live in an apartment building. An apartment dog's best attributes include being quiet, low energy, somewhat peaceful indoors, and respectful to the other inhabitants. Your dog's personal space in your apartment can be improved by purchasing one of these fantastic dog cages.

Sensitivity Level

Depending on the dog, a strong rebuke can be taken in stride by some, while others regard even the tiniest hint of disapproval as a personal attack. If you have a loud or pushy owner, a chaotic home, or a routine that is unpredictable or variable, your low-sensitivity dog, often known as "easy-going," "tolerant," "resilient," or even "thick-skinned," will be able to handle it better. Do you have young children, host a lot of parties, or have a hectic lifestyle? Choose a dog that isn't overly sensitive.


You can't tell from looking at them whether or not they're hyperactive, but when they do anything, they do it vigorously. They tug at their leashes (unless you teach them not to), they push their way through barriers, and they down their meals in huge, gobbling gulps. A home with young children or an elderly or feeble person may not be the best place for these dynamos to learn proper etiquette. On the other side, a dog with poor vitality adopts a more reserved demeanor.

Potential for Playfulness

The playful nature of certain dogs never fades away, and they're always ready for a game, whereas the reserved and serious tendencies of other dogs develop through time. Think about how many times a day you want to play fetch or tag with your dog, and whether or not you have children or other dogs who can act as substitutes.

Personality Appearance


In the same way as working dogs, such as those that herd sheep, are bred for intelligence and decision-making, working dogs like those who run all day need to exercise their bodies. The two most common activities that a bored pet engages in are digging and chewing, both of which require mental stimulation. There are several ways to keep a dog's brain active, including obedience training, interactive dog toys like tug of war, and dog sports like agility and search and rescue.

Energy Level

Energy-draining dogs are always on the lookout for a new activity. There are several jobs that require a lot of stamina from dogs, such as herding livestock or recovering prey for hunters. Children are more likely to engage in activities such as jumping, playing and exploring new sights and smells as a result of this change in their environment

A low-energy dog is more like a couch potato than a dog that needs a lot of exercise. Think about your level of physical activity and whether or not you find a hyperactive dog irritating before making your final choice.

Easy To Train

Easy to train dogs can more easily form associations between a cue (like "sit"), an action (like sitting), and a reward than dogs that are more difficult to train. Dogs that require more time, patience, and repetition are more difficult to train.

Getting your dog interested in training will require incentives and games because many breeds are intelligent but have a "What's in it for me?" mentality when it comes to learning new things.

Family Affection Level

Affectionate With Family

Since puppyhood, some breeds remain aloof and independent; others form deep bonds with one individual but are uninterested in the rest of the family; still other types shower their entire family with affection. Canines raised in homes with people tend to be more open to human interaction and develop stronger ties, regardless of their breed or upbringing.


Kids-friendly dogs are calm, strong enough to bear the hefty hugs and pets kids can dish out, and have an unfazed attitude about rushing, scream-inducing children. There are several names you may not expect to see on the list: Fierce-looking Both Boxers and American Staffordshire Terriers are regarded as family dogs (which are considered Pit Bulls). Chihuahuas, which are small, sensitive, and potentially sharp, are not always family-friendly.

Dog Friendly

Dog friendship and human friendship are two entirely different things. The fact that a dog is friendly with humans doesn't mean it's immune to aggression or aggression from other dogs; some canines choose to play rather than fight; others will just run away. The type of animal isn't the only consideration. Dogs who have spent a lot of time playing with their littermates and their mother at the age of six to eight weeks are more likely to be socially competent.

Physical Appearance

Amount of Shedding

Having a dog in the house means that you'll have to deal with some level of dog hair on your clothing and in the home. It's worth noting, however, that shedding varies widely among breeds. Some dogs shed all year long, while others ``blow" just during specific times of the year, and still others don't shed at all. If you're a stickler for cleanliness, you'll need to choose a breed that sheds less or lower your expectations. You can use a deshedding tool to keep your house a little cleaner.

Drooling Potential

While greeting you, some dogs may cover their arms with ropes of drool and create large, wet patches on your clothing. If you don't mind a little drool, go for it; but if you're a stickler for cleanliness, you may want to look for a dog with a low drool rating.

Easy To Groom

Some breeds of dogs can simply be brushed and left alone, while others require frequent washing, trimming, and other grooming in order to maintain their health and appearance. If you don't have the time or money to take care of a dog that requires a lot of grooming, you may want to look into hiring a professional.

Exercise Needs

Evening walks around the neighborhood are perfectly acceptable for some breeds. Others, particularly those trained for physically demanding vocations like herding or hunting, require regular, rigorous exercise.

They can gain weight and release their pent-up energy in ways you don't like, including barking, chewing, and digging, if not given enough exercise. Those looking to train their dog for an energetic canine activity, such as agility, should consider getting a dog that needs a lot of exercise.

Average sizes and life expectancy of the breed


10 to 11 inches tall at the shoulder


8 to 14 pounds

Life Span:

10 to 12 years


There are no significant differences between the origin myths of the English Toy Spaniel and the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. Their ancestry can be traced back to a single breed, which likely originated from the mating of miniature spaniels with Oriental toy breeds. Some historical records suggest that Mary, Queen of Scots, was responsible for introducing the first toy spaniels to Scotland from France.

The affluent began adoring these "comforter spaniels" because they made excellent foot and lap warmers in addition to being lovable pets. As a result of King Charles II's extreme fondness for his dogs during the seventeenth century, the breed became known as King Charles Spaniels, a moniker by which it is still commonly referred to in England today.

The first Duke of Marlborough is credited with creating the red and white "Blenheims," named after his home, albeit these early canines were entirely black and brown. Possible ancestry from hybridization with Chinese Cocker Spaniels explains the coat coloring of red and white. Legend has it that the duke's spaniels are skilled woodcock hunters.

The King Charles Spaniel has been reduced in size and selected for a rounder head and flatter nose over the ages since most of the breed's proponents wanted an attractive lapdog rather than a hunting dog. The English Toy Spaniel, as it is known in the United States, comes in two different solid color varieties the red Ruby and the black and tan King Charles and two parti color varieties the red Blenheim and the black and tan Prince Charles. The breed, sometimes known as a "E.T." or a "Charlie," remains popular among those seeking an affluent but jovial lapdog.

Personality and Temperament

As a breed, English Toy Spaniels are friendly and adaptable. The Charlie spaniel isn't a barker like many others of its breed. Really, he hardly ever raises his voice. When someone knocks on the door, he will, of course, give a quiet bark. This breed is known for its low-key demeanor and adaptability to urban dwellings.

The Charlie is a happy and social breed that tends to favor one member of the household over the others. Even though he favors one family member over the rest, he still loves and enjoys spending time with the rest. As a breed, English Toy Spaniels are extremely loyal to their families. They are irritated because they don't know why individuals are leaving. Those whose primary residence is a home will find the most success with this breed.

To put it bluntly, English Toy Spaniels are delicate pets. Unsupervised children pose a serious threat of harm or death to them. A dog may be seriously injured or killed if a youngster were to trip over it while running. If a Charlie feels threatened, it may nip at a child. This breed does best in households with adults and mellow, older children.


Caring for a English Toy spaniel requires specific attention to their needs. Even as a puppy, he must be groomed properly and fed a healthy diet to thrive. This pet has many health issues to watch for, which is primarily the result of careless breeding in their origins. Here are a few important factors to the health of this dog breed.


Keep in mind that not all English Toy Spaniels will be affected by these diseases, but it is still vital to know about them.

Patellar Luxation:

Also known as "slipped stifles," this is a common problem in small dogs. It occurs when the kneecap (patella) is not in line with the thigh bone (femur) and the shinbone (tibia). As a result, the dog's gait becomes irregular or its limb becomes lame. The illness is present at birth, although the misalignment or luxation may not manifest itself until much later. 

Patellar luxation causes abnormal rubbing of the kneecap, which can eventually develop into the degenerative joint disease arthritis. There are four different degrees of Patellar Luxation, from grade I (a rare luxation that causes only transitory lameness in the joint) to grade IV (a severe luxation in which the tibia has turned so far that the patella cannot be straightened manually). The dog now has a distinctive bowlegged appearance as a result. Patellar luxation of a severe enough degree may necessitate surgical correction.

Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA):

The congenital cardiac defect known as patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) affects a wide variety of dog breeds. Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth causes blood to flow through the heart and around the lungs instead of returning to the body. Fluid builds up in the lungs and causes difficulty breathing, fainting, dizziness, coughing, chest pain, and eventually collapse and heart failure. Surgery is used to close the ductus arteriosus in those who have it.

Mitral Valve Insufficiency

Disease of the mitral valve, which separates the left atrium and ventricle, is known as mitral valve insufficiency; it is most frequent in older dogs. When this occurs, blood can easily flow backwards into the left atrium because the mitral valve failed to close properly. Heart failure is just one of many potentially fatal complications that might arise from this. A heart murmur, fluid in the lungs, an enlarged heart, fatigue, and a weakening heart muscle are all symptoms of this condition. Medication, a special diet, and an exercise ban can help alleviate the symptoms for a while. To Charlie's benefit, he can maintain a healthy weight and have sparkling white teeth.

Cleft Palate

Cleft palate occurs when there is a separation of the palate (the roof of the mouth) between the nasal and oral cavities. It consists of a hard and a soft component. Depending on the severity, a cleft palate can be a little hole or a huge cut running across one or both palates. When the hard and soft palates are affected by a cleft, it can also result in lip deformities. A cleft palate can be present at birth or develop as a result of trauma in a puppy. 

Dogs with cleft palates are not uncommon, but unfortunately, many puppies born with the condition do not make it or are destroyed by their breeders. Surgery to close the opening is the sole treatment for a cleft palate, albeit not all dogs with a cleft palate need the procedure. Visit your vet for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.


Often seen in toy breeds, cryptorchidism occurs when one or both of a dog's testicles never descended. By the time a dog is 2 months old, the testicles should have descended completely. A retained testicle is usually inoperable and can develop into cancer if not treated professionally. Neutering your dog is the recommended treatment. The normal testicle, if present, is removed in the usual fashion, and a small incision is made to remove any undescended testicles during the neutering procedure.


Oily skin (seborrhea oleosa) and dry skin (seborrhea sicca) are two forms of the skin condition seborrhea (dry skin). Dry, flaking skin, a nasty "doggy smell," and itching are the hallmarks of both conditions, and they frequently coexist with a variety of ear and skin infections. Seborrhea can have many different root causes, including metabolic abnormalities, allergies, internal and external parasites, and autoimmune diseases. 

The root reason needs to be identified first, then treatment can begin. Once identified, seborrhea is easily treated with dietary modifications, high-quality shampoos and conditioners, and, in rare cases, medication.

Retinal Dysplasia:

Congenital hereditary retinal dysplasia is the most prevalent form of this condition in dogs. Trauma or prenatal herpesvirus or parvovirus infections are additional possible causes of this disorder. Retinal folds, the result of faulty retinal development, can cause varying degrees of visual impairment. 

As a result, the dog may experience anything from a temporary blind patch to complete blindness. Six to eight weeks of age is the earliest screening window for retinal dysplasia. Although there is currently no cure for retinal dysplasia, many blind dogs are nonetheless able to have happy and productive lives because of the fact that their other senses more than make up for their lack of sight.

Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease:

Because of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the ball of the hip joint becomes misshapen. There is an initial reduction in blood flow to the femoral head, which leads to the bone's death, collapse, and deformity. Arthritis and hip joint inflammation are the end results of this abnormality. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is a mystery because its origins are not fully understood. 

Dogs with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease often show symptoms including hip chewing, painful movement, gradual lameness, and irritability. Strict crate rest, physiotherapy, and surgical removal of the malformed femoral head and neck are the standard treatments. Many dogs recover quickly from surgery with only temporary lameness, especially when exposed to extreme temperatures.


In hydrocephalus, pressure is exerted on the brain due to an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the skull as a result of a birth injury or a congenital condition. This is common in canines younger than 18 months of age and in canines older than 6 years. Dogs with hydrocephalus don't have a chance if they aren't treated. Surgeons and shunt surgeons both have options for removing the blockage.

Umbilical Hernia:

In an umbilical hernia, abdominal fat or internal organs protrude against the abdominal wall near the umbilicus, a birth defect. In cases where the hernia is minor, no treatment is necessary. Some puppies outgrow their hernias by the time they are 6 months old, while some dogs have gone their whole lives with only a minor hernia. 

The surgical repair of a large hernia is generally performed at the same time as the spaying or neutering of the dog. When a loop of intestine drops into a hernia, it can cause life-threatening "strangulation" of the intestine and must be surgically repaired to prevent death.

Open Fontanel:

When you open the font, you'll see that English Toy Spaniels have a naturally rounded skull. The soft spot usually closes, much like a baby's, but occasionally one won't. A dog should never be struck, but owners of English Toy Spaniels with an open fontanel should know that even an unintentional strike there could be fatal.

Fused Toes: 

It is important to note that English Toy Spaniels frequently have fused toes, but this is a normal inherited characteristic and not a sign of any underlying medical problem.

Recommended Health Tests

  • Cardiac Test 
  • Ophthalmologist Evaluation


Your dog's daily caloric intake should be adjusted based on its age, weight, activity level, and the severity of any preexisting conditions. Learn how much dog food your dog needs by consulting with your doctor. They will be able to tell you if your dog is overweight or underweight, what kind of diet and nutrients it needs, and much more.

You could also follow the guidelines provided by the manufacturer on the food's packaging. In order to determine the appropriate amount of food for your dog, you should measure his or her weight. However, if you are trying to gain weight or lose weight with your spaniel, you should adjust his or her diet based on the ideal weight you hope to achieve.

For a dog of this size, the recommended daily amount of high-quality dry kibble is between 12 and 1 cup. Wet and dry food should be fed at different times, therefore adjust the amounts accordingly. Deduct the calories from their regular diet based on the number of goodies you give them. The dog needs constant access to clean water.


It's not uncommon for English Toy Spaniels to have wavy or curly coats in addition to their more typical long, straight coats. Even though this breed has long, luscious hair, it does not require a lot of time spent brushing and combing. Remove the dead hair and keep him at ease with a weekly brushing.

Regular facial washing, especially after the dog has been sleeping, is necessary because the Spaniel sheds its eyelids constantly. A cotton swab for ear cleaning is also required.

Once every two months, get a nail trim. The English Toy Spaniels nails should be trimmed on a regular basis because it does not engage in strenuous physical activity such as running. If you want things to go smoothly for you and your dog, start when the dog is young. If you don't feel comfortable doing it yourself, get a professional groomer.

Last but not least, you should brush your dog's teeth at least thrice a week, if not more frequently. Once again, this is something that needs to begin when the dog is still young.


The fact that they need relatively little daily activity contributes to the breed's popularity among retirees and the elderly. Your English Toy Spaniel can get all the exercise he needs from a simple walk around the block once a day. Given the English Toy Spaniel's predisposition toward developing joint problems, the breed shouldn't be subjected to strenuous or overly lengthy exercise routines.


Even though they are smart, this breed can be difficult to train because of their independence. But they are usually eager to please their humans, therefore they will respond well to positive training methods.

It's beneficial to begin socializing young. While the spaniel is rarely violent or fearful of new people, it can be hesitant around them. The ability to adapt to novel environments and interact positively with new individuals depends on how well-socialized a dog is.

Children And Other Pets

Although some English Toy Spaniels are devoted family pets, others struggle to cope with the chaos and constant motion that come with small children. If you treat them roughly, they may resort to biting as a defense mechanism. When raised with other animals, English Toy Spaniels become excellent companions.


Charlie puppies are the cutest, but they break easily. Hugging them too closely or simply stumbling and falling on them is all it takes to kill them. It's important to use caution around both young and adult members of this breed. English Toy Spaniels need early socialization to live fulfilling lives. In its absence, kids may develop social anxiety and become withdrawn.

Similar breeds

  1. Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
  2. Pekingese
  3. Cocker Spaniel
  4. Japanese Chin
  5. Papillon